The characteristics of a motherboard depend on several variables, the footprint factor, the chipset, the type of processor support and the input/output connectors. The motherboard is the printed circuit board that supports most of the components and connectors required for the operation of a PC-compatible system. It is essentially composed of printed circuit boards and connection ports that link all the components and peripherals specific to a microcomputer (hard disks (HDD/SSD), random access memory (RAM), microprocessor, daughter boards, etc.).
In order for them to be recognized and configured by the microprocessor using the program contained in the BIOS (basic input output system), it is necessary to configure and correctly start all the devices composing the computer. Industrial motherboards are specifically designed for professional use. They have various expansion slots and are generally designed to withstand much higher temperatures than a so-called consumer motherboard. They are mainly used in industrial PCs because they are more reliable and resistant over time. Manufacturers generally commit to supply them for more than 5 years.
The industrial PCs have been designed for use in the industrial computing field, and can operate in harsh environments where the temperature can be high or low, where there is a lot of dust, vibrations, it ensures you a gain in productivity and reliability.
There are different microprocessors available. Xeon is one of them, and is manufactured by Intel whose instruction set is x86 and designed for workstations and computer servers. The name “Xeon” is a trademark that appeared on April 20, 1998 for the Pentium II. First used in association with the Pentium brand (Pentium II Xeon, Pentium III Xeon), it was used alone from Pentium 4 (Xeon 1.4, Xeon 3040, etc.). The Xeon versions have superior performance and a larger cache memory than the consumer versions of Intel’s microprocessors.
The different models of Xeon processors are divided into 4 categories: Bronze, supporting up to 2 sockets; Silver, also supporting up to 2 sockets and providing better computing, networking and storage performance than Bronze; Gold, supporting 2 or 4 sockets; Platinum, supporting 2, 4 or 8 sockets.
The Atom is a brand of Intel and brings together under its name several microarchitectures designed mainly for netbooks (initially MID) and nettops. It then diversified into embedded systems, consumer electronics (Internet Box) but also smartphones and touch tablets. The processors are designed to offer low power consumption due to their environment, which guarantees autonomy, and low thermal dissipation (TDP), thus facilitating their integration into compact systems. Their small size is synonymous with reduced manufacturing costs.
Celeron is a range of processors (CPUs) for laptop and desktop computers. Invented by Intel, Celeron chips are widely deployed for the consumer computing market. They have continued to evolve and are now integrated into many PCs. Based on the same x86 architecture as the most widely used Intel processors as the Intel Core, Celeron remains the least performing, behind the Intel Pentium, and far behind the Intel Core i3, the entry-level Intel Core. It is the same processor, but with inferior functionalities. Initially, the Intel Celeron processor had only one core, but since the Conroe generation, it has had a second one. Currently, the most widespread version is the Intel Celeron Dual Core, although a version with four cores exists (Intel Celeron Quad Core). The number of cores determines the ability of the processor to perform several tasks at once, and thus the speed of switching from one task to another. The more cores a Celeron processor has, the better and faster it performs. Its frequency is calculated in gigahertz (GHz), so the processor’s speed is generally lower than that of other processors, which are more powerful and faster. It ranges from 0.266 GHz to 3.6 GHz.
The Intel Celeron processor does not use hyper-threading, a technology invented by Intel that doubles the number of physical cores, thereby increasing the performance of the processor, particularly for multitasking. The Celeron does not benefit from the Turbo Boost found in the Intel Core range, which increases the frequency of the processor to boost its power when the system is under stress. In summary, the Celeron has a lower cache memory compared to other processors such as Intel Pentium and Intel Core, making the processor less powerful.
A multi-core microprocessor is a processor with multiple physical cores running simultaneously. Older architectures operated with a single processor that controlled several computing circuits simultaneously. A physical core is composed of circuits capable of executing programs autonomously. All the functions required to run a program are present in these cores, such as a computer counter, registers, calculation units, etc. The physical core is made up of circuits capable of executing programs autonomously. Caches are defined for each processor or shared between them.
Today there are many types of standards related to USB. USB 2.0 is a standard relating to a serial computer bus that is used to connect computer peripherals to a computer or any type of device such as a tablet, smartphone, etc… The USB bus allows you to connect peripherals while hot (the computer is running) and benefiting from Plug and Play that automatically recognizes the peripheral. It can also power some peripherals (USB key, SSD disks, etc.).
USB 3.0 appeared in 2008 (since renamed to USB 3.1 Gen 1) has the SuperSpeed mode, theoretical throughput of 5 Gbit/s6. But as this new mode uses 8b/10b data encoding, the actual transfer speed is only 4 Gbit/s. The USB 3 delivers a maximum electrical power of 4.5 W, i.e. 0.9 A at 5 V.
Compatible peripherals have connections with 6 contacts instead of 4, but backwards compatibility of plugs and cables from previous versions is ensured. However, backward compatibility is not possible because USB 3.0 Type-B cables are not compatible with USB 1.1/2.0 Type-B7 connectors.
In early 2010, USB 3.0 is introduced in consumer products. Sockets are often marked with a blue color. Red sockets also exist, indicating a higher available power and suitable for fast charging of small devices even when the computer is turned off (setting in the BIOS or UEFI).
A graphics card or video card is a computer expansion card whose role is to produce an image that can be displayed on a screen. It sends to the monitor images stored in its internal memory at a frequency and in a format that depends on the monitor connected and the port it is connected to and its own configuration. All the necessary data will then pass from the RAM to the graphics card via the graphics bus and will be stored in the graphics card memory. For your PC Gamer or video editing computer, buy a powerful Crossfire or SLI compatible graphics card or opt for overclockable models with efficient or even passive cooling systems. The graphics card is the PC component that will meet all your gaming and video processing computing power needs.
PCI Express, abbreviated PCI-E or PCIe is a standard developed by Intel. It specifies a serial local bus (“PCI express bus”) and a connector that is used to connect expansion cards to the motherboard of a computer. It replaces all the expansion slots on a PC, including PCI and AGP. Thanks to the PCIe bus, two PCIe cards can communicate with each other without going through the processor. PCI Express is derived from the PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) standard and allows manufacturers to simply adapt their existing expansion cards (the hardware layer only needs to be modified). It is possible to replace the classic PCI but also the AGP, a fast port for graphics cards. Unlike PCI, which is connected to the southbridge of the motherboard, PCI Express is often available on both the north and southbridge.
Intel’s Core i7 brand is used for its high-end consumer microprocessors, Core i5, Core i3 and Core i9 were introduced later. To find out the generation of a processor, refer to the number after i(x) example: Intel® processor Core™ i5-10210U = 10th generation because the number 10 is indicated after i5.
The ATX format is an evolution of the Baby-AT format, it is studied to improve ergonomics. The layout of the connectors on an ATX motherboard optimizes the connection of peripherals, the IDE connectors are located on the disk side and the motherboard components are oriented in parallel to optimize heat dissipation. ATX format specifications: 305 mm x 244 mm AGP / 6 PCI
The micro ATX format is an evolution of the ATX format, it keeps the main advantages while offering a smaller format (244×244 mm), therefore a reduced cost. The micro-ATX format offers an AGP connector and 3 PCI connectors. Characteristics of the micro ATX format: 244 mm x 244 mm AGP / 3 PCs
The Pentium trademark was registered by Intel in 1993 at the time of the development of personal computers with color screens. The processing of photos, videos, sound files and video games for PCs is faster. Pentium saw Intel enter the market of processors for Windows NT and then Linux servers, this new strategy contributed to the very strong rise of technology companies in the mid-1990s. It was used to designate several major (Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium 4) and minor (Pentium MMX, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium M, Pentium D) evolutions of the x86 processor architecture. Other brands used in the Pentium brand for x86 are Celeron for entry-level and Xeon for workstations and servers. The Core brand replaced Pentium in 2006 for the core segment of the market, with the Pentium Dual-Core brand being an entry-level Core 2 released in 2007.